Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Learning the Birthday Song in German

The good news about singing Happy Birthday in Germany is that it is not hard at all. The reason is the bad news: The English version of Happy Birthday is commonly sung at German parties. Nevertheless, on occasion, you will hear it sung in German. There are a few main birthday songs in German. One common song is sung to the same tune as the English birthday song. The lyrics are as follows:   Zum Geburtstag viel Glà ¼ck, Zum Geburtstag viel Glà ¼ck, Zum Geburtstag alles Gute, Zum Geburtstag viel Glà ¼ck. Another birthday song that you will hear at times, especially at childrens birthday parties, is the one penned by Germanys favorite childrens singer, Rolf Zuckowski. Its called Wie schà ¶n, dass du geboren bist (Its great that you were born). Here are the lyrics to that song:   Wie schà ¶n, dass du geboren bist,   wir hà ¤tten dich sonst sehr vermisst, wie schà ¶n, dass wir beisammen sind, wir gratulieren dir, Geburtstagskind. English Translation Its great that you were born. Otherwise, we would have missed you very much. Its great that were together.   We congratulate you, birthday child. Another traditional birthday song doesnt use the words happy birthday at all, yet its still common. For this version, sometimes the chair is lifted up while everybody sings along. Here are the lyrics to that song: Hoch soll sie/er leben!   Hoch soll sie/er leben! Dreimal hoch!   English Translation Long may she/he live! Long may she/he live! Three cheers! This song almost sounds like a chant. Listen to the tune here (and learn a few bonus phrases that are less commonly used but still amusing to memorize).   How to Say Happy Birthday in German When filling out the birthday card, there are several ways to wish someone a happy birthday. Two common expressions are:   Herzlichen Glà ¼ckwunsch zum Geburtstag.   Alles Gute zum Geburtstag. How Do Germans Celebrate Birthdays? Learn more about typical German birthday customs here.

Updating Cookies in JavaScript

Actually updating a cookie is slightly different from just replacing a cookie in that the new value we want to place in the cookie is dependent in some way on whether the cookie already exists and if so on what it contains. This means that we need to read the existing cookie before we can write a replacement for it. One thing to note is that when we read a cookie we have no way of telling when the existing cookie is due to expire or whether the cookie is restricted to a specific folder or available across the entire domain. You need to set a new retention period when you replace the cookie and need to keep track of what scope you want the cookie to have within your pages so as to apply the same domain or path option each time. The only thing that you are actually able to read when updating rather than just replacing a cookie is the actual value of the data stored in the cookie. In this example, we are going to use a cookie named accesscount to count the number of times that our visitor has accessed our page where no more than seven days has elapsed between visits. Should more than seven days elapse between visits then the cookie will expire and the next visit will restart counting from zero. We are using the allCookies() and writeCookie() functions from the prior examples so the only piece of new code we need in order to actually do the update is in the last two lines. var cookie;allCookies function() {var cr, ck, cv;cr []; if (document.cookie ! ) {ck document.cookie.split(; );for (var ick.length - 1; i 0; i--) {cv ck.split();cr[ck[0]]ck[1];}}return cr;};writeCookie function(cname, cvalue, days,opt) {var dt, expires, option;if (days) {dt new Date();dt.setTime(dt.getTime()(days*24*60*60*1000));expires ; expiresdt.toGMTString();} else expires ;if (opt) {if (/ substr(opt,0,1)) option ; pathopt;else option ; domainopt;} else option ;document.cookie cnamecvalueexpiresoption;}cookie allCookies();if (cookie.accesscount ! null) writeCookie(mycookie, cookie.accesscount 1,7);else writeCookie(mycookie, 1,7);

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Citizen Kane Mise En Scene Analysis - 983 Words

Citizen Kane is a movie starring Orson Welles that is loosely based on the life of William Randolph Hearst and the media empire that he built in the late 1800s and the early 1900s. Mise en Scene is possibly the most important chapter that we have covered that pertains to Citizen Kane and shows numerous examples of it throughout the film to reinforce loss as a recurring theme. Citizen Kane’s non verbal strength is made evident through the use of not only intrinsic interest but through the use of isolated figure versus clustered and off-screen information as well. Perhaps one of the most important segments not mentioned in our scene summary notes that encapsulates Mise en Scene is when Charles Foster Kane is giving his speech when he’s†¦show more content†¦The use of intrinsic interest was effective in this film due to the fact that Kane was a guarded and somewhat secretive man when it came to his personal life and the background information given through th ese shots was helpful when trying to understand the deeper meaning of his actions. It also helps to show the parallels between the fabricated narrative of Charles Foster Kane’s life and the real life of William Randolph Hearst. In the film the use of isolated figure versus clustered is very obvious. It is used throughout the film to show the social isolation of Kane as his success grows in moments when he decides to put aside personal relationships in favor of financial growth and notoriety. Kane tends to appear stronger and more in control in moments when he’s by himself then in moments when he is surrounded or affiliated with others who the film portrays as individuals or groups who â€Å"weaken† him; this results in the film often showing Kane in moments of anguish amidst being successful because he feels misunderstood, isolated and detached from those that were once closest to him. However eventually his isolation catches up with him as we see in the beg inning of the film when we are shown the no trespassing signs and fences before his death; subsequently showing that his isolation has eliminated everyone that would’ve mourned him. Other examples of this are how he periodically moved fromShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Film Citizen Kane By Orson Wells1303 Words   |  6 Pagesthe film ‘Citizen Kane’, directed by Orson Wells (1941) for this assignment. The technical aspects I have chosen to explore will be the use of both mise-en-scene and editing. Synopsis The clip I have selected from Citizen Kane is a montage scene that shows the protagonist Charles Foster Kane eating breakfast with his wife Emily. The scene is presented in the form of a narrative exposition from the mind of Jedediiah Leland, who is the ex business partner of Kane. The entirety of the scene is comprisedRead MoreOrson And Citizen Kane, Touch Of Evil, And Othello, Make Him A Great Auteur? Essay2317 Words   |  10 PagesElie Rahbani 201300566 History of film paper: Topic: Orson welles Question: How do the formalistic and ideological patterns found in Orson Welles’s movies; Citizen Kane, Touch of Evil, and Othello, make him a great auteur? Outline: †¢ 1. Orson Welles (Biography and 3 films) †¢ 2. Formalistic patterns: âž ¢ Mise en Scene in each film âž ¢ Editing in each film †¢ 3. Ideological patterns (in each film) †¢ 4. Orson Welles as an Auteur 1. Orson Welles: Biography: Orson Welles was born on the 6th of MayRead MoreHistorical Analysis of the Movie, Citizen Kane Essay1699 Words   |  7 Pages Historical Analysis, Citizen Kane: Camera Movement Citizen Kane, directed by Orson Welles, was an exemplary and ground-breaking work. In narrative structure and film style, Welles challenged classical Hollywood conventions and opened a path for experimentation in the later 1940s. Gregg Toland’s deep-focus cinematography and Welles’ use of low-key lighting are often discussed aspects of the movie. True, these were areas of innovation, but when watching the movie in class I was particularlyRead MoreCitizen Kane : Character Analysis : Citizen Kane1337 Words   |  6 PagesCharacter Analysis: Kane Citizen Kane one of the consistently top ranked films of all time, A film that would change the course and style of film from that point on Its ability to direct the audience’s attention with its many remarkable and breath-taking scenes. It employed many new cinematic and innovative techniques that apply to lighting, sound mixing and editing that been emulated ever since. The character that we see take the greatest advantages of these new techniques is Charles Foster Kane, utilizingRead MoreFilm Analysis : The Power Of Vertigo1774 Words   |  8 PagesFilm Analysis 1: The Power of Vertigo I remember watching Vertigo for the first time back when I was still very young, but at the time, I didn t really understand anything about the movie. As I watched it again as I grew older, I learned to appreciate how great this movie really is and the special narrative style that the movie presented. Vertigo, to me, was always known as Alfred Hitchcock s best film. Most of Hitchcock’s well-known films like Psycho or North by Northwest have unique title sequencesRead MoreEssay on Music in Scorsese films2910 Words   |  12 Pagessong so that certain points of the music or the vocals will be hitting between certain lines of dialogue. Those lyrics are also commenting on the dialogue† So here we see how Scorsese chooses to use Lyrics that suggest more about the action in the scene, on an almost subconscious level with the audience. This use of editing and fine tuning lyric placement goes to show that it’s far more than just choosing songs for Scorsese. An example of the use of lyrics to construct a feeling is noted later onRead MoreThe Independence Of Meta Cinema And Authorship4881 Words   |  20 Pagesfurther aims to cultivate cinematic literacy among the audience (Valck and Hagener, 1999). Thus, auteurist concerns can be summarised as appealing to the articulation and reception of filmmakers? self-reflexivity. David Bordwe ll has indicated in his analysis on European art cinema that the stress of authorship covers the distinct style of art cinema practices (Bordwell, 1979). In his essay, representative art films are introduced as models conveying authorial marks, among which are Day for Night (LaRead MoreMetz Film Language a Semiotics of the Cinema PDF100902 Words   |  316 PagesPhenomenology of the Narrative, 16 II Problems of Film Semiotics Chapter 3. Chapter 4. Chapter 5. The Cinema: Language or Language System? 31 Some Points in the Semiotics of the Cinema, 92 Problems of Denotation in the Fiction Film, 108 III Syntagmatic Analysis of the Image Track Chapter 6. Outline of the Autonomous Segments in Jacques Rozier s film Adieu Philippine, 149 Chapter 7. Syntagmatic Study of Jacques Rozier s Film Adieu Philippine, 177 vii viii CONTENTS IV The Modern Cinema: Some Theoretical

George W. Bushs Never Say The Never Again - 1442 Words

September 11th, 2001 is a day that will live in infamy for many years to come. Americans’ hearts were broken and lives were lost. In an effort to not only amended the wound, but also create a stronger nation, George W. Bush coined the term â€Å"Never Again†. For many years the phrase â€Å"Never Again† was a symbol of hope. Looking closer at Jolliet Kayyem’s article published in the Magazine Foreign policy 2012, entitled â€Å"Never say ‘Never Again’†. One could decipher that she used a copious amount of rhetorical devices effectively to form and support her thesis statement. The thesis of the article was that the narrowed term â€Å"Never Again† initially changed the publics view on nine eleven and the department of homeland security, as well as influenced policy making decisions. The article starts off by stating that politicians will not be invited to the eleventh anniversary of nine eleven. The reasoning behind this theory t hat she gives is because of political feuds that can happed during the ceremony, she states this would make the ceremony more of a political stunt, which takes away from the intimacy that the ceremony is meant to have for the victims of nine eleven and their families. It then says that nine eleven has become more of an event, rather than a personal ceremony specifically for the families who experienced tragedy during nine eleven. The slogan â€Å"Never Again†, which was coined by George W. Bush, was used to justify his decisions in the Iraq war as well as domesticShow MoreRelated President George W. Bushs Use of Pathos, Logos, and Ethos Essay1548 Words   |  7 Pages Throughout George W. Bushs political career he has implored the use of Aristotles tripod, which we like to call it. This tripod is a rhetoric which implies that persuasion relies on three things, which are ethos, pathos, and logos. Logos is devoted solely to logic and reason. While on the other hand, pathos deals with attitudes and beliefs. Perhaps the most important one which pertains to George W. Bush is something called ethos, that is to say the branch of the tripod which deals with the personalRead More The Iraqi War Essay1144 Words   |  5 PagesThe Iraqi War In March of 2003 George W. Bush declared war on Iraq. The war against this country was expected to be a quick victory for the United States. Sure enough, in May of 2003 Bush declared an end to major operations in Iraq. The United States had taken the country from Saddam Hussein with little resistance. Americans were mixed in the approval of the use of force, and their doubts of Bush’s faults were boosted when no weapons of mass destruction were discovered. However, during theRead MoreApplying Alfred Adlers Personality Theory to George W Bush Essay1524 Words   |  7 Pageson which to do my research proposal on I decided on one of my favorite presidents in my time. George W. Bush seemed to be the most â€Å"real† president we have had in office since the 90’s. Next, I chose Adler’s theory to apply to Bush do to the fact that is the theorist that most closely applied to Bush’s life. Let ‘s start with some back ground about George W. Bush and then apply Adler’s theory. George W Bush was born on July 6, 1946. He was born in New Haven Connecticut where his father was attendingRead MoreRecount essay1003 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Recount The movie recount is a very good representation of what happened during the 2000 election between George W. Bush and Al Gore. It dives into the legal battle between the two campaigns as the recount of Florida’s votes kept the nation waiting for over a month. Although the movie shows both sides of the story, I believe the Democrats supported the making of this movie. During the movie they made it seem like the Democrats were being treated unfairly but really the government was just followingRead MoreThe Presidential Election Elections Election1664 Words   |  7 Pageswithin Governor George W. Bush’s grasp. The television news networks were showing a big lead for Bush across the country. I turned the television off in my office, and I advised my Soldiers to get back to work. My Soldiers and I were stationed overseas in the Republic of Korea. We were thirteen hours ahead of the Eastern Time zone in the United States. We worked for the Commanding General for all U nited States Troops in Korea. The General often spoke about the election, but never let on whichRead MoreAnalysis Of 41 : A Portrait Of My Father2672 Words   |  11 Pagespublic spotlight after the 2010 release of his memoir Decision Points in favor of his painting, many were quite surprised to learn last year that former President George W. Bush had again picked up the pen to craft a very different sort of portrait than the ones he had been producing. This masterful biographical work on President George Herbert Walker Bush, fittingly titled 41: A Portrait of My Father, comes across as a genuine labor of love from a son for his father and one former Leader of the FreeRead More Like Father, Like Son: A Deeper Look into the Bush Legacy Essay3224 Words   |  13 Pagesbusiness life, to their lives as the Presidents of the United States of America, George Herbert Walker Bush and George Walker Bush have led quite parallel lives. Analyzing aspects such as their personal oil business es, the U.S economy, and international issues especially concerning the Middle East, one can usually find more to contrast than compare. According to a biographical article in The White House, George H. W. Bush was born on June 12, 1924, in Milton, Massachusetts. Bush became a studentRead MoreEssay on The Presidential Election of 2000818 Words   |  4 Pagestension was sky high on Election Day, November 7th, 2000. Behold, we were to have a new president; well, possibly. Election experts have called â€Å"evolution† instead of a â€Å"revolution† in changing the way the country goes about its elections. Never in history has such controversy risen as in Election 2000: Bush vs. Gore. Election 200 has raised â€Å"serious concerns over the integrity of the voting system. Filled with demonstrations of voting machines and oversized punch card ballotsRead MoreEssay about Rhetorical Strategies Used by President George W. Bush1825 Words   |  8 PagesRhetorical Strategies Used by President George Bush After the September 11 Terrorist Attacks On September 11, 2001, the Islamist terrorist group known as al-Qaeda launched a series of terrorist attacks on the United States of America, specifically in the New York City and Washington D.C areas. Nineteen al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four planes with the intention of using them as suicide attacks that would crash those planes into designated buildings, or targets. Two of the four passenger jetsRead More George Herbert Walker Bush and George Walker Bush Essay3210 Words   |  13 PagesLike Father Like Son - George Herbert Walker Bush and George Walker Bush Although all individuals are unique no matter how closely related they might be, sometimes their similarities over shadow their differences, and yield a very interesting combination of events that almost have a deja vu effect on its audience. The Bush family serves as the perfect illustration for this phenomenon. From their family history and business life, to their life as the Presidents of the United States

The Great Gatsby and the American Dream free essay sample

A detailed analysis of the The Great Gatsby and a look at its themes and characters. This paper presents an analysis and explanation of The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald. The author provides a detailed summary of the novel and an analysis of the characters with emphasis on the nature of friendship in the novel. Also, the author looks at how the novel portrays the pursuit of the American Dream that doesnt always work out as expected. In The Great Gatsby, the philosophy of the American Dream has transformed from a powerful, nation-shaping force to an engine for personal destruction. The story of The Great Gatsby is told by Nick Carraway, Jay Gatsbys friend and a man born to status and who dislikes vulgarity in those trying to join his ranks.The story is mainly set in East Egg, where the old money and those who have already established themselves at the top of the social pyramid live, and West Egg, where those still climbing up, live. We will write a custom essay sample on The Great Gatsby and the American Dream or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Gatsby has an ostentatious mansion in West Egg. The area known as the valley of ashes, where people with few prospects live. This is where Toms mistress and her husband live.

Respiratory System Asthma Exacerbation

Question: Discuss about theRespiratory Systemfor Asthma Exacerbation. Answer: Introduction Asthma is a condition whose symptoms are shortness of breath, wheeze, and cough. These symptoms are accompanied by a significant inflammatory cells influx (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). Asthma has stable periods characterized by distinguished exacerbations of the symptoms. Asthma has various etiologies that lead to its severity which include occupational exposures, irritants, allergens and bacterial or viral respiratory infection. Discussion Many reasons could have led to Geronimos acute exacerbation of asthma. Respiratory infections could cause the increase in the severity of asthma (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. (2011). Geronimo was experience higher respiratory tract infection with an unresolved cough with breathlessness. Various respiratory infection microorganism could lead to asthma exacerbation. These pathogens are either bacteria or viruses. Geronimos asthma exacerbation may be due to allergens which include cold. Geronimos condition was getting worse during the cold seasons as there had been a thunderstorm. Some irritants could have led to Geronimos acute exacerbation of asthma. This irritant could be dust or pollen grains. Geronimos condition gets worse during the soccer match. This could be because he inhaled dust or pollen grains from the fields as he played. These irritants irritate the upper respiratory systems hence worsening the symptoms of asthma (Majak, Olszowiec-Chlebna, Smejda Stel mach, 2011). Geronimos asthma exacerbations could be cough-induced since it worsened when he was laughing or coughing. It could be exercise-induced since it worsened during the soccer match. Conclusion These triggers act through different mechanisms that lead to a common pathway involving inflammation, increased bronchial responsiveness which consequently leads to the obstruction of airflow (Ono, Taniguchi, Higashi, Mita, Kajiwara, Yamaguchi Oshikata, 2010). Therefore, Geronimos severity could be due to any of the above reasons hence further investigations are required. Classification of Asthma Introduction Asthma is grouped according to the symptoms present and severity. Asthma is divided into mild asthma, severe asthma, moderate asthma and intermittent asthma, (Stout, Visness, Enright, Lamm, Shapiro, Gan, Adams Mitchell, 2008.). These classes have varying severity as less severe symptoms are seen in intermittent asthma and most serious symptoms seen in severe persistent asthma. The grading of asthma is done using the past and current asthmatic symptoms as well as physical examination accompanied by the measures of lung function which include spirometry and peak flow measurements (Stout et al. 2008). Discussion From the medical history that the mother gave on the asthmatic condition of Geronimo, it is evident that he has intermittent asthma. An individual with intermittent asthma has symptoms of coughing and wheezing for less than two weeks. Geronimos mother states that the symptoms of coughing and wheezing had lasted for only ten days. Patients with intermittent asthma do not experience difficulties in everyday activities unless on occasions where there is an asthma exacerbation due to the various triggers (Stout et al. 2008). The mother says that Geronimo was well until he caught a cold. After he had caught a cold, it is when he started having difficulties in performing daily activities. It is after he got a cold that he began experiencing problems while playing sports due to wheezing and coughing hence he had to avoid running about with his mates so as to prevent the symptoms. The mother also states that Geronimo is usually well apart from the usual coughs he gets and that he has only mi ssed ten days of school in the last twelve months. These statements from the mother show that Geronimo is well and he has intermittent asthma. Conclusion Classification of asthma is important since the information helps the medical practitioner to come up with the right medication as well as be able to determine the proper doses needed to keep the condition in check. Classifying Geronimos asthma as intermittent will help in determining the right medication and prescriptions he should take. Results of the Spirometry Test and the Purpose of an Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Introduction Spirometry refers to an office test that is used determine the working condition of the lungs by evaluating the amount of air that is inhaled, exhaled and how quickly do these processes occur. Spirometry is used in diagnosing conditions affecting the rate of breathing and in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (Francisco, Ner, Ge, Hewett Knig, 2015). Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) test is used to measure the amount of oxygen and carbon (IV) oxide in the blood as well as to determine the patients blood pH (Mousavi, Fereshtehnejad, Khalili, Naghavi Yahyazadeh, 2014) Discussion The critical measurements of the spirometry are; forced vital capacity (FVC) and Forced expiratory volume (FEV-1). FVC also implies the maximum air that can be exhaled by a person when taking a deep breathe. If FVC is lower than the normal, thus, it will imply that there is restriction of breathing. FEV-1 means the air which ones can exhale within one second from the lungs. The FEV-1 is helpful in assessing the severity of ones breathing problem. If FEC-1 is lower than normal it indicates a more significant obstruction (Francisco et al. 2015). The average values of FEV-1 are between 80% and 120%. Geronimos initial FEV-1 readings were 55% showing a significant airway obstruction due to the effect of asthma. The final FEV-1 readings after medication were 74% which showed that the condition had improved but did not reach the values of normal persons. An ABG test should be performed since the asthmatic condition reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood, increases carbon dioxide and increased acidity. Conclusion Both spirometry and ABG tests should always be performed to know the severity of the asthma so that the necessary action can be taken. Medication and treatment should be based on the findings of these tests. Forms of Asthma Medication Introduction There are various categories of asthma medication. Some medications include those which control asthma for a short time and those which are used for a long time. Other medications are used for quick-relief, and other drugs are used for allergies caused by asthma. Medications for asthma treatment are in three forms; long-term asthma control drugs, drugs used for allergy-induced asthma and the quick-relief medications. Discussion The long-term asthma control drugs are usually taken often to tame the chronic symptoms as well as prevent asthma attacks (Bush Frey, 2016). These drugs include the long-acting beta agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, theophylline, leukotriene modifiers and the combination of corticosteroids and long-acting beta agonists. The inhaled corticosteroids include mometasone, flunisolide, budesonide, ciclesonide, and fluticasone (Mori, Fujisawa, Inui, Hashimoto, Enomoto, Nakamura Yamada, 2016). The leukotriene modifiers are zileuton, zafirlukast, and montelukast. The long-acting beta agonists include formoterol and salmeterol. The combined drugs include breo, dulera, Symbicort and Advair discus. The quick-relief drugs are medicines that are taken for quick and relief in a short period of time used to treat asthma or prevent an asthma attack. These drugs include ipratropium, short-acting beta agonists like albuterol and the oral/iv corticosteroids used to deal with a more severe asthma atta ck. The oral corticosteroids for serious asthma include methylprednisolone and prednisolone. The third category contains drugs used for allergy-induced asthma. These drugs are taken more often to reduce the bodys sensitivity to the various allergens. These medications are allergy shots for immunotherapy and oxalizumab. Conclusion To keep the symptoms of asthma controlled there is need to identify the symptoms and side effects so as to enable the adjustment of treatment accordingly. Most of the asthma medications are meant to reduce the severity of the symptoms and not completely cure the condition. References Bush, A., Frey, U. (2016). Safety of long-acting beta-agonists in children with asthma. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. (2011). Vital signs: asthma prevalence, disease characteristics, and self-management education: United States, 2001--2009. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 60(17), 547. Francisco, B., Ner, Z., Ge, B., Hewett, J., Knig, P. (2015). Sensitivity of different spirometric tests for detecting airway obstruction in childhood asthma. Journal of Asthma, 52(5), 505-511. Majak, P., Olszowiec-Chlebna, M., Smejda, K., Stelmach, I. (2011). Vitamin D supplementation in children may prevent asthma exacerbation triggered by acute respiratory infection. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 127(5), 1294-1296. Mori, K., Fujisawa, T., Inui, N., Hashimoto, D., Enomoto, N., Nakamura, Y., ... Yamada, T. (2016). Step-down treatment from medium-dosage of budesonide/formoterol in controlled asthma. Respiratory Medicine, 119, 1-6. Mousavi, S. A. J., Fereshtehnejad, S. M., Khalili, N., Naghavi, M., Yahyazadeh, H. (2014). Arterial blood gas and spirometry parameters affect the length of stay in hospitalized asthmatic patients. Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 28, 4. Ono, E., Taniguchi, M., Higashi, N., Mita, H., Kajiwara, K., Yamaguchi, H., ... Oshikata, C. (2010). CD203c expression on human basophils is associated with asthma exacerbation. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 125(2), 483-489. Stout, J.W., Visness, C.M., Enright, P., Lamm, C., Shapiro, G., Gan, V.N., Adams, G.K. and Mitchell, H.E., 2008. Classification of asthma severity in children: the contribution of pulmonary function testing. Archives of pediatrics adolescent medicine, 160(8), pp.844-850.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

The New Fraternity Culture Essays - , Term Papers

The New Fraternity Culture The New Fraternity Culture After drinking from a keg of beer stashed in the basement of the Alpha Epsilon Pi fraternity house at the University of Michigan last December, a group of pledges stripped to their boxer shorts and lined up, ready to endure their next torturous test of brotherhood. As two other fraternity members watched, a ?pledge educator? pointed what he thought was an unloaded BB gun at the pledges' various body parts. He was simply trying to scare them. When he approached the seventh student in line, the ?educator? pointed the gun downward, two inches away from the pledge's penis, and fired. Unexpectedly, a pellet shot out (Reisberg A59). Fraternities have been in existence for over a century. They were established to nurture pride, leadership, unity, and commitment (Nate 18). Although some fraternities still embrace these values, this does not make up for the dangerous behavior that most fraternities engage in. Alcohol abuse has become far too large of the college social scene and fraternities are its most publicized defendants. Rowdy keg parties have replaced the values and ideals that were once the basis of fraternities, as binge drinking becomes the core of their brotherhood. Each year on campuses throughout this country, binge drinking causes students to suffer academically while risking their health and safety, as well as that of the rest of the campus community. Contrary to the many members firmly entrenched in the fraternity culture, several national fraternities are trying to dispel this image. They have devised programs which emphasize academic development, leadership, and community service, while at the sam e time taking the focus off alcohol and hazing. The first of the Greek-letter societies, Phi Beta Kappa, was founded on December 5, 1776, with the aims of creating a ?scholastic, inspirational, and fraternal? society. The founders of Phi Beta Kappa named friendship, morality, and literature as essential characteristics. Laws provided for a ?reverent opening and conduct of meetings, encouraged sobriety, and demanded ethical ideals superior to those manifested by a rival society? (Voorhes 8-12). The growth of the system was gradual, for it was not until 1825 that Kappa Alpha, Sigma Phi, and Delta Phi were established. The decade of the thirties produced another trio of fraternities: Alpha Delta Phi, Psi Upsilon, and Beta Theta Pi. The period preceding the Civil War witnessed the establishment of most of the remaining general fraternities of ?present larger extension? (Nate 18-38). Oliver Wendell Holmes, a student at Harvard in 1859, captures the immortality of loyal friendships and high ideals in a message to his classmates: Then here's to our boyhood, its gold and its gray! The stars of its winter, the dew of May! And when we have done with our life-lasting toys, Dear Father, take care of Thy children, thy boys. The founding of the fraternities was at the hands of men who set up high life-ideals for themselves and those who would come after them. The more recent years have strengthened the chapters through the development of their national organizations and a more direct alumni co-operation (Nate 60). As fraternity chapters grow stronger, they are slowly losing sight of their fundamental purpose. The values and ideals that once served as the basis of fraternities have been replaced in some chapter houses by excessive drinking and brutal hazing practices. Through the new fraternity culture, binge drinking becomes interwoven into college life. The Federal Substance Abuse Prevention reports that undergraduate students currently spend $4.2 billion a year on booze ? far more than they spend on their textbooks. An advertisement being run in college newspapers by VivaSmart, an online textbook seller, actually features the headline, ?More on Beer, Less on Books,? accompanied by an explanatory text that begins, ?We know you have better things to do than blow your money textbooks? (Miller 1). This message promotes and legitimizes a college drinking culture that according to the Surgeon General Antonia Novella is spinning out of control'? (Elson 64). In a survey of students at 140 colleges b y researchers at the Harvard University School of Public Health, forty-four percent of students reported binge drinking, which the study defined for men as consuming five or more drinks in a row within the previous two weeks, and